BACKWARDNESS IN INDIA WITH REFERENCE TO MADHYA PRADESH
– Pranay Joshi
Institute of Law, Nirma University
This Paper talks about How India has become the backward country from a growing economy which includes the major factors of backwardness in India this paper has given special preference to Madhya Pradesh and discussed how Madhya Pradesh is facing the problems of backwardness what are the legal provision and planning done on the state level to eradicate the backwardness in the state. What are the Criteria and Strategy for Backward Area Development the country which is helping the backward people in the country? How these measures help the development of these people and what are the laws which are made for upliftment of these class of people. Till now these classes have reached what extent of development in the county and in the state of Madhya Pradesh. How the constitution of India does helps these class what are the rights which are being made available to this class in the country under the constitution of India. Till what extent the government of India has achievement the development of this class India has got independence 1947 this class of people are existing from that period since we got independence but in those 68 years India has not been able to achieve eradication of backwardness from the country. The factors which were responsible earlier are the same reasons till now. The Laws should concentrate on one problem at a time- Increasing Backwardness or Decreasing Backwardness. The provisions of the Act should be properly drafted and should be amended so that they do not result in harassment of Backward Class. The NGO’s or other organizations working for the benefit of backward classes should help to sensitize the condition of these people so that the government takes quick notice.
”The backwardness of our religious and social developments is undoubtedly holding back the development of the intellectual and political levels.”-Carroll Quigley
The advancement of the social structure amid hundreds of years of feudalism in districts which were not then created by interchanges prompted the presence of vast groups which endured impediment and incapacities forced by other monetarily and socially overwhelming gatherings. The boss amongst the underprivileged or extraordinarily impeded gatherings are the Harijans, i.e., the booked positions, the tribal populace, bunches which were up to this point known as criminal tribes, and different gatherings who can be considered to constitute the weaker area of the populace and who are socially, monetarily, and instructively in reverse.
An arrangement of social stratification of rank rests upon the unequal appropriation of force between the gatherings having clear position in the chain of command. Social imbalance is a production of Hindu position ridden society. About 33% of India’s populaces are socially, monetarily and instructively in reverse. The social chain of command of Indian culture working during a few time forced various weights on the purported lower classes including the untouchables.
As an impact a few classes progressed socially and financially at the expense of lower classes. The regressive classes experience the ill effects of weaknesses and inabilities which are age-old and which get their approval mostly from the rank framework.
The expression “class” connotes a type of social stratification. It is characterized as an area of individuals who offer comparative financial status or position. It is similarly open when contrasted with different types of stratification like station. A class is thought to be in reverse if its individuals are financially and instructively less special contrasted with different classes in that society.
2. Objective of the Paper
• The Objective of the research is to understand about backward classes in India and then in Madhya Pradesh.
• To understand who is a backward class? What are the factors which are responsible for creating backward classes in India and Madhya Pradesh?
• To know what is the Extent of Backwardness in India.
• To understand the criteria and strategy for backward area development made by the Indian government.
• To understand how the backwardness class is being developed. To study the History of Backward class in India.
• To read and understand the constitutional provisions for backward classes in India.
• To understand the Policies which are made by the Madhya Pradesh State Government.
• To suggest the benefits and effects of legislation on backward classes in India.
• To suggest change in the legislation related to backward class in India.
3. Madhya Pradesh (As State)
The number of inhabitants in Madhya Pradesh comprises of ethnic gatherings and tribes, standings and groups, including the first tribal’s and moderately later transients from different states. The planned ranks and the booked tribes constitute a critical bit of the occupants in the State. As indicated by the 2001 enumeration, the number of inhabitants in the tribal’s in Madhya Pradesh was 12,233,000, constituting 20.27% of the aggregate populace. There were 46 perceived Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been distinguished as “Uncommon Primitive Tribal Groups” in the State.
Madhya Pradesh gross GDP (ostensible GDP) for 2013-14 was ? 4,509 billion (around US$ 72,726,000,000). The per-capita figure was US$ 871.45 in 2013-14, the 6th most reduced in the nation. Somewhere around 1999 and 2008, the annualized development rate of the state was low: 3.5%.Subsequently, the state’s GDP development rate has enhanced altogether, ascending to 8% amid 2010–11 and 12% amid 2011–12.1
The state has an agrarian economy. The real products of Madhya Pradesh are wheat, soybean, gram, sugarcane, rice, maize, cotton, rapeseed, mustard and arhar. Minor Forest Produce (MFP, for example, tendu leaves used to roll beedi, sal seed, teak seed, and lak likewise add to state’s provincial economy.
Madhya Pradesh has 5 Special Economic Zones (SEZs): 3 IT/ITeS (Indore, Gwalior), 1 mineral-based (Jabalpur) and 1 agro-based (Jabalpur). In October 2011, endorsement was given to 14 proposed SEZs, out of which 10 were IT/ITeS-based. Indore is the significant business focal point of the state. As a result of the state’s focal area, various purchaser merchandise organizations have set up assembling bases in MP.2
1 Indiastat.com,. “Indiastat.Com – India’s Comprehensive Statistical Analysis, Data Information & Facts About India”. N.p., 2016. Web. 1 Feb. 2016.
2 Mp.gov.in,.”Home – Govt-Of-Mp-India”.N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Jan. 2016.
Mp.gov.in,.”Backward Classes & Minorities Welfare – Govt. of MP India”.N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Jan. 2016. Bccomm.mp.gov.in,.N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.
The state has the biggest stores of precious stone and copper in India. Other real mineral stores incorporate those of coal, coalbed methane, manganese and dolomite.
Madhya Pradesh has 6 Ordnance Factories, 4 of which are situated at Jabalpur (Vehicle Factory, Gray Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory, Ordnance Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and Itarsi. The plants are controlled by the Ordnance Factories Board, and fabricate an assortment of items for the Indian Armed Forces.
4. Backwardness in Madhya Pradesh
The economy of Madhya Pradesh is primarily agrarian, it is additionally described as one of the mechanically in reverse states. As per Annual Survey of Industries (ASI) report, the aggregate capital put resources into the sorted out division of MP amid 1997- 98 was Rs 21445 crores and the aggregate business was of the request of around 4640 crores. The aggregate state salary amid that year at current costs was Rs 53435 crores out of which the aggregate offer of auxiliary segment was 21.94 for each penny. Aside from the mechanical backwardness, the state likewise experienced disturbing nature of between provincial differences in level of modern advancement. This made the concentrate more pertinent with regards to Madhya Pradesh .It is surely understood that the Indian economy and society show colossal territorial varieties and consequently grabbing a specific state or specific locale may seem risky in a from the earlier sense. In any case, unified Madhya Pradesh (from this point forward MP) happens to be one among the regressive districts in India and its choice was principally done in light of the fact that we liked to evaluate the development execution of unified Madhya Pradesh with regards to continuous liberalization arrangement. The development of a different condition of Madhya Pradesh will achieve a mess of changes in the present situation particularly as the mineral base of MP will go to Chhattisgarh. There is an incomprehensible bay of contrast between the unified and separated Madhya Pradesh a sharp study into the status of unified Madhya Pradesh gets to be unavoidable as (will be as provincial incongruities in mechanical advancement are concerned. The choice of the district was inspired by our understanding that the locale symbolizes the key qualities and shortcomings of a portion of the noteworthy components of India’s improvement methodology specifically the substantial business drove monetary change drive that developed after freedom. Besides, the district has a decent amount of Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribe (ST) populace, areas which were among the most disregarded amid the pre NEP period, and who might be among the most exceedingly terrible hit in the wake of NEP. In addition, looking to the past writing, there had scarcely been any
study completed on this subject with regards to Madhya Pradesh. To scaffold this crevice, it was along these lines, chose to embrace the investigation of ‘modern development and structure of Madhya Pradesh.3
5. Common Factors of Backwardness
“India must be the only country in the world, where people fight to be called backward”-
1. The main occupation of the people is agriculture-
Around 72 % of our populace were reliant on horticulture at the season of our Independence. Indeed, even in this day, as per Economic review 2013-14, roughly 49% of our populace are straightforwardly or by implication subject to horticulture.
2. Incidence of poverty is very high and widespread-
Because of this present, individuals’ capacity to spare is fantastically low which in the long run prompts low capital arrangement in the economy-Every third destitute individual on the planet is an Indian, which fundamentally implies that 1/third of the world’s poor live in India. In light of this the gross reserve funds rate and gross capital arrangement rates are impressively lower, even contrasted with other creating countries. Low gross capital development prompts lower development of our economy. Be that as it may, the photo searches splendid for the future as the gross capital arrangement was at 26% in 1990-91, however it has ascended to 34.8% in the money related year 2012-13.
3. Growth of the population is high and so the percentage of dependent population- India’s populace has reliably developed at more than 2%. The issue of populace blast intensifies on the grounds that the demise rate is falling radically yet we are seeing no impressive fall in birth rate. Additionally about 57.5% of our populace is underneath the age of 15 or over the age of 64, which makes them reliant on another person. They are a weight for the economy as they can’t add to the economy.
4. Standard of living of the people is generally low-
As of now India’s per capita pay is just $ 1,626. Its not just low contrasted with first world nations like USA, Canada, Australia additionally low contrasted with creating nations like Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and so forth. Low per capita wage in the end
3 Bccomm.mp.gov.in,.N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.
prompts low expectation for everyday life for the all inclusive community of a nation.
5. Production techniques are obsolete and investment in research & development is low- Contrasted with cutting edge nations our creation procedures and our efficiency is unfathomably low. This is correctly the motivation behind why the “Make in India” crusade should be a win.
6. Unemployment and underemployment is high-
As indicated by the national example overview in the year 2009-10, around 6.6% of our work power are unemployed taking into account current day by day status . It tumbled to 5.6% in the year 2011-12. Unemployment is pervasive, as well as so is underemployment or masked unemployment. Masked unemployment implies individuals are utilized, however their profitability is nill or in negative figures. Its more basic in agribusiness division.
7. Level of human well being is low-
Human prosperity is measured by the Human Development Index (HDI), which was built by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). HDI is computed by arranging three pointers of human advancement, they are:-
• Longevity, which is measured by future.
• Knowledge, which is measured by education rate
• Standard of living, which is measured by per capita salary.
As of now India’s positioning is 135 among 187 nations. The pitiful part is numerous creating nations like China, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, have a superior HDI positioning than India.
8. Widespread inequality of Income-
The Gini list is utilized to quantify the imbalance of pay and riches in a nation. At present India’s Gini record is 0.339, though the Gini file in 1994 was 0.297. So we can reason that wage imbalance has expanded throughout the years. Shockingly, our Gini record is lower than that of United States.
9. Orthodox society-
This reason has been said in the majority of the answers. The social existence of individuals is customary, and standpoint of individuals is by and large conventional. Likewise individuals once in a while go for broke to change their financial relations.
6. Extent of Backwardness In India
7. Criteria and Strategy for Backward Area Development
These suggestions ought to frame the premise for activity in these ranges. There are a few territories which can fall into more than one classification of backwardness. For instance, there is a broad cover in the middle of tribal and slope territories especially in the north-cast. There is likewise some cover in the middle of tribal and dry spell inclined ranges e.g. in south-east Madhya Pradesh. In these cases the proper system must be to join the cures proposed for both sorts of regions.4
• Industrial Development of Backward Areas
The striking components of the particular suggestions of the Committee for operational punch the system for modern dispersal are recorded beneath:
(i) The cut-off rule for the determination of communities for the improvement of medium and substantial industry would be that they ought to have a populace of no less than 50,000 and that they ought to be arranged at the very least separation from a current mechanical centers. For this reason “existing mechanical centers” ought to be all towns/urban agglomerations with a job in non-family unit assembling of more than 10,000. The base separation ought to be 150 km. for focus’ with a vocation of more than 150 thousand, 100 kms. For focus with a livelihood of 50—150 thousand, 75 km.For focus with a job of 25—50 thousand and 50 km.For focus with a vocation of 10—25 thousand.
(ii) 100 such focus’ ought to be chosen out of every single qualified town for advancement in the Sixth Plan.
(iii) Each development focus ought to be overseen by an Industrial Development Authority which would have the contract to advancement and give the essential infrastructural support and additionally to activate reserves from organizations like IDBI, HUDCO, and so forth.
(iv) For foundations like IDBI, HUDCO, and so on to assume a successful part, it would be attractive that suitable money related backing to these organizations is guaranteed amid the arrangement period.
• Statistical Base for Local Planning
These activities in nearby making arrangements for in reverse range improvement can’t be embraced in any successful way if the information base for such arranging is
4 General Issues Relating To Backward Areas Development. New Delhi: Planning Commission, 2016. Web. 16 Jan. 2016. (National Committee on the Development of Backward Areas).
not developed. Concerning crop insights the spread period of plant yields and minor products, which might be essential, in a few territories should be made strides.
• Focal Point— an area-cum-beneficiary oriented approach
The proper level must be a group of towns, with a populace of 15,000—20,000, where arrangements would be actualized and family-wise contacts manufactured Mp. The way that the Committee has prescribed tries to conform the system at every stage with the offices that are accessible by then of time. The arrangement of activity is, as per the following:
(a) acement projects which are as of now comprehended in the territories and are suitably illustrated, ought to be connected up with the family approach ;
(b) general plans, of advancement which naturally prompt the improvement of families, inside of the ambit of the plans are to be recognized and the recipients recorded and their prereqdvanuisites guaranteed ;
• Growth Centre as the Catalyst of Area Development
The Committee has recommended measures for expanding profitability and using completely the advancement potential for in reverse ranges furthermore to achieve a sensible dispersion of advantages towards the objective of social. Comprehensively talking, we can anticipate five noteworthy sorts of advancement which would make development focus’ with the generous potential for producing all round improvement in the back ward regions encompassing the tasks and amongst the general population of the region. These are:
(i) Industrial buildings
(ii) Growing Urban complex
(iii) Raw material misuse (woods and minerals and commercial enterprises based consequently).
(iv) Large Irrigation Projects; and
(v) Hydro and Thermal Projects.
• Rural Marketing
The destinations of a productive provincial showcasing framework are:-
(a) To empower the essential makers to get the best cost
(b) To give offices to lifting of produce which the makers will offer at a sensible cost
(c) To diminish the value spread between the essential makers and extreme buyers
(d) To make accessible all results of homestead beginning to customers at a sensible cost without disabling the nature of the produce.
• Organization And Administration
The successful usage of the procedure for the improvement of in reverse regions will require considerable reinforcing and streamlining of organization and in addition changes in the modalities of financing and execution of advancement ventures. It has shown that the crucial prerequisite of arranging and organization at the zones must be as per the following:
(a) It must offer coordination of the political, regulatory and neighborhood organizations for deciding the system of advancement for the range and the way in which it can be actualized, in this way empowering direct collaboration between subjects, panchayati raj bodies., non-official offices like cooperatives and executing offices.
(b) It must unite all the authoritative operations at the territory level under viable coordination and a base compelling control of a solitary office to have the capacity to adequately balance the effective powers of centralization and divided basic leadership, connected with vertical managerial chains of importance managing separate sections of the economy.
8. Backwardness and Development in India
9. National Policies
• The National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993
• Gazette Notifications / Resolutions issued so far specifying Castes / Communities in the Central list of Backward Classes
• The National Commission for Backward Classes Rules, 1994
10. Constitutional Provisions
What we find, however, is the. Characteristics of backwardness described and spread over the different articles of the Constitution. Article 15 (4) speaks of social and educational backwardness. In article 16 (4), mention is made of backward classes and their inadequate representation in services. Article 46 refers to weaker section of the people in which the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are included.
Along with such references of backwardness, the Constitution also makes a special provision for their upliftment. To overcome the problems of social disabilities the Constitution has laid down certain provisions under Article 46. It states that the state shall promote with special care the educational and economic advancement of the weaker section of the people, in particular the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Finally, there is the Article 340 which makes provision for the State Government to investigate the condition of the backward classes. Keeping these points in view, we will examine each category of backward classes like the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and the Other Backward Classes’composition.
III. Provisions relating to Socially & Educationally Backward Classes (OBCs)
– Commission for Enquiring into Conditions of Backward Classes
340. Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes –
1. The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any State to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition and as to the grants that should be made for the purpose by the Union or any State and the conditions subject to which such grants should be made, and the order appointing such Commission shall define the procedure to be followed by the Commission.
2. A Commission so appointed shall investigate the matters referred to them and present to the President a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper.
3. The President shall cause a copy of the report so presented together with a memorandum explaining the action taken thereon to be laid before each House of Parliament.
Safeguards Relating to Educational and Public Employment
III. Fundamental Rights
15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth –
(1) The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
(4) Nothing in this article or in clause (2) of article 29 shall prevent the State from making any special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.
(5) Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision, by law, for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30.
16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment –
1. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
2. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, be ineligible for, or discriminated against in respect of any employment or office under the State.
3. Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from making any law prescribing, in regard to a class or classes of employment or appointment to an office under the Government of, or any local or other authority within, a State or Union territory, any requirement as to residence within that State or Union territory prior to such employment or appointment.
4. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from making any provision for the reservation of appointments or posts in favor of any backward class of citizens which, in the opinion of the State, is not adequately represented in the services under the State.
(4B) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from considering any unfilled vacancies of a year which are reserved for being filled up in that year in accordance with any provision for reservation made under clause (4) or clause (4A) as a separate class of vacancies to be filled up in any succeeding year or years and such class of vacancies shall not be considered together with the vacancies of the year in which they are being filled up for determining the ceiling of fifty per cent reservation on total number of vacancies of that year.
Agency For Monitoring Safeguard
XVI. Special Provisions relating to certain Classes
338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes –
(10) In this article, references to the Scheduled Castes shall be construed as including references to such other backward classes as the President may, on receipt of the report of a Commission appointed under clause (1) of article 340 by order specify and also to the Anglo-Indian community. 5
11. Policies In MP
• The Purpose Of the Backward Classes And Minorities Directorate:
• To Protect the Provisions Made in the interests of Backward classes and Minorities and Protect their Rights in Context of Facilities available to Backward classes.
• Formulation of the Policies and Planning, for the welfare and development of the Backward Classes and Minority.
• Prepare various educational, social and economic development programs to ensure maximum benefits to peoples of the Backward classes and Minority.
• Priorities Of The Department
• Take successful Measures to associating Backward classes and Minorities to standard of society.
• Do executions of different plans for the upliftment of scholarly, social and monetary development of the Backward classes and Minorities.
5 Socialjustice.nic.in,. “III. Provisions Relating To Socially & Educationally Backward Classes (Obcs) – Constitutional Provisions: Ministry Of Social Justice And Empowerment, Government Of India”. N.p., 2016. Web. 17 Jan. 2016.
• Do usage of deliberate advancement plans, to raise the self-assurance and end the felling of backwardness.
• Do the improvement of the procedure, for getting the testament of Backward Classes.
• Make procurements for Diploma, Degree Programs in Traditional Technical and in the range of mechanical training, give acknowledgment in each area to these refinements.
• To overcome from the social backwardness, give the uncommon need every zone.
• For the young ladies of Economically Weaker individuals of Backward Classes, Hostel Building at the local level and for advanced education understudy to give instructive offices and grants.
• Do the review of area/structures of Mosque, Dargah and Gurudwara and so forth to uproot the unlawful ownership.
• Use/Access the Wakf Properties in Favor of Minority.
• Attempt Reasonable Efforts to Protect and Promote the urdu dialect and to regard the State Authors.6
MP state backward classes commission
• Constitution and Organization functioning under this Department.
• Backward Classes Commission External Website that opens in new Window.
In India, there have been many debates and discussions on Backward classes but all have been in vain. Condition of Backward classes in India has not been improved at all. The Government of India has made several policies, schemes which are made for the betterment of backward classes but none of them have been implemented properly. India has 29 states and all states have their own state made laws for the welfare of backward classes but the condition is not improving. The Founding fathers of the constitution gave reservation to the backward classes for their betterment for a period of 10 years with a view that the condition of them will be improved with time. But it’s been 60 years and the reservation still exist in the society which itself proves that the backwardness is still there in the roots of Indian society. few states like Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh
6 Mp.gov.in,.”Backward Classes & Minorities Welfare – Govt.of MP India”.N.p., 2016. Web. 15 Jan. 2016: Bccomm.mp.gov.in,.N.p., 2016. Web. 14 Jan. 2016.
they are called as “Bimaru” state because of these backward class present and don’t contribute much to the state.
The researcher has thoroughly studied the concept of Backwardness. He finds out that there are several loopholes in the Laws which needs to be addressed by the legislators. In context of the study made for the research, the researcher makes the following suggestions.
• The Laws should concentrate on one problem at a time- Increasing Backwardness or Decreasing Backwardness.
• The provisions of the Act should be properly drafted and should be amended so that they do not result in harassment of Backward Class.
• The NGO’s or other organizations working for the benefit of backward classes should help to sensitize the condition of these people so that the government takes quick notice.