GLOBAL FOOD CRISIS
– Deepa Singh Baghel1
The object of the matter is related to food crisis which is the most eventualcrisis of the world and poor people are spending their life very critically. And the food is the basic content to explore their life and crisis of food is a main and big criticism of the society which is spoiling the development of human beings. Law has defined about the ‘right to food’. The government has done a lotof measures and implementations to these programs but everything has its own pros and cons. so in that regard author has put some suggestion for exceed the development.
From theearly human period theman was nomad in nature he was totally based upon the food he has no any other work exceptsearching food. Then medieval era man learned to grow the food and then today, in modern era there are m an y sources for collecting food and but in this era also man compelto spend his life as nomadic. Before the independence agriculture was depend on monsoon but now we have many equipments for producing food then also people die from the starvation and famishment. Thereason of this tremendous situation is population,poverty, unemploymentand also one of the reason co-related naturaldisaster but that not in usual.
Excerpts allthesesentiments theinternational billof rights has introduced the resolution which has been described about the person’s rights on the adequate standard of living. That included in the International Covenants of Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) which adopted in 1966. It was stated about the human economic socio culture rights,so thatwas internally and initially included the right to food which is basicand daily need of every individual.2 United Nations has recognize the agencies which are working in differentparts and general assembly has maintained some financialbudget forthese organizations3 and FAO (Food Agriculture Organization ) is one of them continuously work for it. The many conventions and laws made by the United Nations to remove the food crisis from theworld and many countries are adopting this rule into their country.
India has also put the lot of measures for food crisis in India and according to article 21 Indian constitution, Justice Bhagwati, observed in the case of Francis Coralie v. Delhi 4 that right to live is include the right to live with the dignity that means every person has right to have adequate nutrition, shelter, clothing and all the facilities which are important for every human being. Supreme court held in the case Shantisar builders v. Narayanan khimalal totame 5 the right to life is under article 21 is include food, shelter and clothes, and another thing is live with reputation and reasonable decent environment. The directive principle of state policy article 39 (a) define that state must treated equally either the men or women or children and provide them reasonable adequate oflivelihood. And state government has launched many programs related to right to food and nutrition so as per the law right to food is essentialright and has maintained preserve by the legal sanction.
REASON OF FOOD CRISIS INTERNATIONAL BASIS
After the first and second world war the poverty rate went to high, 100 million people of the world are dying from starvation and 20 million children suffering from malnourishment and world’s 35.5% children die because of malnourishment.6 There are 22 countries which are below poverty line Haitiis the poorest country of the world and the poverty rate of Haitiis 77% and in India’s poverty rate is 45.5% in globalpoverty estimation.7
There are many things which are the reason of high poverty rate in globalestimation
• The low productivity of agriculture and soil erosion.
• No any proper means which can develop these areas because the location and society is not developed people are mainly illiterate and ignored so they have no efficiency developed themselves and they are also not aware from this.
• The animal husbandry is also not effective because there is no enough species which can give the proper development the demanding of animal protein egg, meat, milk, etc. and it is not available in enough quantity for every individual.8
• Whether effect is also hindered because the some specific areas can grow some specific food plants and grains which effecting on their nutrition.
• Relation with neighbor country is weak and import promotion and export substitution is not effective so there is no enough materialfor livelihood.
• GDP growth is weak and less, people per capita income is less so no investment is there and that is the reason of low development.
• The naturaldisaster is also one of the reason the that deteriorate alltheresources and effect the plans which made by government and the aid which made for the development of poverty, that demolish allthat resources Asian & African counties are much effected EquatorialKundu is poorest country which effected from the natural disaster .9
• Another reason is countries governmental management which is mostly corrupted so the economy become so weak and less development10 that is also one of the reason of poverty and food crisis.
From allthese analysis there are so many reason which are obstructing the development of food crisis FAO has launched many programs for their development and those countries suffering from economic crisis IMF had also provide them large amount of money for their development. But then also there is some unrestricted and unsolved problems which make hindrance in society.
RIGHT TO NUTRITIVE FOOD
Food is the necessary and the basic need of every individualand right to food is doesn’t means that minimum food. The food must be healthy and nutritivefor thedevelopment ofthe body.Article (25)UDHR declare about the human rights and basic right of livelihood must be fulfilled. “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, shelter and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event ofunemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old ageor other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control”. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.11 FAO and UNO has also jointly adopted many of the programme and exercise the world food programme (WFP) for the development of economic and social basis and related to this it has work for the problems on agriculture, soil erosion and also animals which are give protein egg and meat they also developed there species That deals with allthe agriculture farming products, seeds, fisheries, forest etc. and another thing is that it attentively work for the food crisis and in 1960 ithas launched “freedom from hunger campaign”and many other programs “World Food Programme”(1963) so with all these objects they tried to remove the food crisis from world so the 16 October celebrate as world food day and that is the day when FAO came into force.
RIGHT TO FOOD AND IMPLEMENTATION FROM THE INTERNATIONAL BASIS
The UN has prepare the resolution in 1996 World Food Summit in Rome and the (ICESCR) madeit effectiveand includegeneralcomment on ‘right to food’ but that is one of the loop hole of this part that it is not legally bound after this it has voluntary made the report on food programme and in 17April 2000 it has established the commission of human rights which work for the right to food. In 2004 the (FAO) has recognize right to adequate food in national food security and the internationallaw has well established in article 25 of (UDHR) which explain the right to adequate standard of living and that was internally stated about the right to food which was enshrined by the (ICESCR) according to article 1112 but thereis oneof thelack behind this obligations that it is not legally bound.
The ‘right to food’ in India consider as fundamentalrights and that the basic and essentialnecessity of every individual related to allthese views the supreme court has declared in the case chameli singh v. state of Uttar Pradesh13 which has explained the article 21 of the constitution which held that the right to adequate food, shelter and cloths which is necessary for theremental and physicalgrowth.Apart from that Indian constitution has previously dealwith allthese matters article 21 “right to live” says thatevery individualhas right to livewith the human dignity14 and the case shantisar builders v/s narayana khimlal totame15 in this case supreme court held that right to live is guaranteed the civilized society which included the right to food, shelter and clothes and right to decent enviroment with the reasonable accommodation to live.16 Apart from that article 39(a) is the part of directive principle which define about the right to equality either men or women and right to adequate livelihood. Related to all these discussion the there is lots of law and orders which fully maintained and the people must be aware from all these rights which provided by the state.
SUGGESTION FOR IMPLEMENTATION IN FOOD CRISIS
The united nation has adopted lots of measurement for giving some relief to the poor and hunger people and many other countries has run many otherprogrammes forthese peoples but in present time the food crisis fluctuating in the countries and because some of the loopholes in our society which effect on this.
• The governments have to adopt new policies to save the people from violating there right because there is lot many things which can effect into that as corruption, profiteering, evasion from the responsibility and there must be proper management for maintaining these disasters.
• The government must pay attention for the obligations which provided for the government employee.
• And they have to become prudent for the distribution of food and to ensure that adequacy of participation by the people.
• And state must take initiative for the development specifically in ruralarea because most of the people
• And there must specialprogramme as documentary programme for expand the knowledge related to their rights and remedies.
• Government also work for the literacy because if the person will be literate he willgive active participation for these programme he will be prudent for his rights.
• There must be some legal procedure to save the people from infringingthere rights and liability towards the state to take some strict action against it.
• Government must adopt the policy related to employment for reduction the poverty. That is the basic requirement of every individualfor their daily meal.
• The government also adopts some policy and makes plan for those areas which are affected with famine and starvation.
The matter is conclude that the food is the basicneed ofevery individual and the food crisis is the disaster in the society because the hunger people can go to any extent and he can do any type of wrong many people become theft and dacoit so that is also the dangerous situation in front of the country. Daily many people die because of starvation many fetus die in womb so population also affect with this and that is true that birth rate is high but the death rate is also high. So related to this views themany conventions and covenants for thedevelopment of those people and international billof rights has provide the lots of food programme for the hunger and poor people and many poor countries has got lots of benefitfrom these conventions India has also adopt this into the fundamentalright of the people.Government took initiative for programmes and plans but many other loopholes also in the society therefore the ‘poor people become poorer and rich become richer’. So excerpts allthe views the author included the suggestions related to the food crisis and there reliefs and there is define some suggestions to the government for the implementation to theprogramme and adopt some policies for the welfare of the people there is also define some reasons which areaffecting into the developmentthe ruralareas aremuch affected because thereis illiteracy,unemployment, and unawareness forthe rights of the individuals and that is also the very big reason for the food crisis but government must be prudent for the rights of individuals which are provided.